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沪二手房中介门店关掉15% 成交量触及生死线

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 新政稳定市场 年轻人可愿意“先租后买”? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

近两年居民储蓄率下降 归还债务被动储蓄增多

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

None of these conditions is in place now. Fed tightening, begun in December, has been put on hold. The federal funds rate (the interbank overnight lending rate) is estimated to be more than a percentage point below its natural level. And there have been no surprises from the Fed. Last December’s 25 basis point rise in the Fed’s policy rate, for example, was comprehensively signalled in advance.
8. Get Inspired
每个伟大的侦探都需要专属于自己的经典故事。对于福尔摩斯而言,这个故事是《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》。对于阿加莎?克里斯蒂笔下龟毛的比利时侦探赫克尔?波洛而言,这个故事是《东方快车谋杀案》——故事讲述了一个嗜血的恶棍在驶向巴尔干半岛的列车上杀死了一个有钱的商人。真相果真是如此吗?西德尼?吕美特曾在1974年将该故事拍成了一部备受喜爱的电影,强大的演员阵容包括肖恩?康纳利、英格丽?褒曼和阿尔伯特?芬尼(饰演侦探波洛)。如今肯尼思?布拉纳自己戴上了侦探波洛的大胡子,披挂上阵,同时又担当幕后导演。这部新版电影的演员有约翰尼?德普、黛西?雷德利、米歇尔?菲佛、佩内洛佩?克鲁斯和朱迪?丹奇。这个故事还能挖掘出什么新内容呢?也许会有。不过,即使没有,阿婆的粉丝也肯定会去看。这部电影将于11月3日在英国上映,11月10日在美国、中国和土耳其上映,11月30日在中国香港和新加坡上映。(资料来源:二十世纪福克斯电影公司)
“Tangerine” (Sean Baker)
他表示:“价格走低对利润下滑影响加剧”。
The global survey was conducted between 2010 and 2012 and follows the Earth Institute's first rankings released last year. While "the world has become a slightly happier and more generous place over the past five years," economic and political upheavals have resulted in greatly reduced levels of well being for some nations, the report said.
“这部电影讲述的是在荒野中求生存、适应自然以及人文精神的胜利,更重要的主题是信任。”

mort=death死+ality性质→死亡(率)
在经历了长达几十年的许诺后,新的基因疗法终于开始有了一些真实的好成果。不过就像所有的新型疗法一样,基因疗法需要向公众准确地传递如何治疗以及治疗背后的原理,这和疗法本身一样具有挑战性。
吊床架组装方便,可以架在桨板、橡皮船和皮筏上。
单词available 联想记忆:
adj. 疲劳的

Footnotes

  • “去杠杆”已历时两年半 “稳杠杆”成现阶段主旋律
  • In the heart of Wan Chai, on one of Hong Kong’s busiest streets, stands a 33-storey office tower that earlier this year became the second most expensive property to change hands in a city that boasts the world’s costliest property market.

而在一年前,台湾的反华人士就选择了向日葵作为他们反华事业的标志。
声明中说:“我们真诚地向《月光男孩》剧组、《爱乐之城》剧组、沃伦?比蒂、费?唐纳薇和奥斯卡颁奖礼观众致歉,因为在宣布最佳影片环节中我们出了纰漏。”
罗杰斯对于中间剧情的反转十分不满,因此在拍完前三季之后决定离开剧组。这样的违约行为使他面临数百万美元的诉讼。但讽刺的是,韦恩·罗杰斯从来没有正式和剧组签订过合同(他涉及道德条款方面的问题)。因此该诉讼请求被驳回。你可能会说在这次的事件中,罗杰斯是笑到最后的人,但自从他离开剧组,《风流医生俏护士》又播出了八季,而罗杰斯在他的演艺生涯中再也没有取得过这样的成就。所以说他是笑到最后的人,也许只是一个相对的说法。
adj. 令人厌烦的
At the same time, college graduates' interest in further education has also dwindled, leading to an increase in students wanting employment from 71.2 percent last year to 75.6 percent this year. Nearly 30 percent of those graduates accepted offers from the internet industry, which is among the highest paying.
超级大碗

天津市市场监管委发布灯具质量抽检公告

References

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